endometrial cancer

Endometrial Cancer

Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the uterus. Fetal development takes place in the uterus, a hollow, pear-shaped pelvic organ.

It begins in the layer of cells that makes up the uterine lining (endometrium).  Uterine cancer is another name for endometrial cancer. One more cancer that can form in the uterus is uterine sarcoma, however it is much less common than endometrial cancer.

Because this cancer typically result in irregular vaginal bleeding. If endometrial cancer caught early, it can frequently treated surgically by removing the uterus.


The symptoms and signs may include:

  • Bleeding after menopause in the vagina
  • Bleeding in between cycles
  • Pelvic pain


The exact cause of endometrial cancer is unknown. Only known is that something takes place to cause modifications (mutations) in the DNA of the cells that make up the endometrium, or uterine lining.

Normal, healthy cells become aberrant cells as a result of the mutation. Healthy cells develop and proliferate at a predictable rate before dying at a predictable time. Abnormal cells do not undergo a predetermined death; instead, they increase and reproduce out of control. As the abnormal cells build up, a mass of them forms (tumor).  Cancerous cells can spread throughout the body by separating from an initial tumor and invading surrounding tissues (metastasize).

endometrial cancer

Risk Elements

The following are some factors that raise the risk of endometrial cancer:

  • Alterations in the Body’s Female Hormone Balance: Progesterone and estrogen are both primary female hormones produced in the ovaries. The endometrium changes as a result of changes in the hormone balance. The chance of developing endometrial cancer can rise if patient have an illness or condition that raises the levels of progesterone but not oestrogen in patient body. Examples include obesity, diabetes, and polycystic ovarian syndrome, which can cause irregular ovulation pattern. The chance of endometrial cancer increases when only estrogenic hormone taken after menopause. The risk of endometrial cancer can also rise in uncommon ovarian tumors that release oestrogen.
  • More Menstrual Cycles Throughout Time: Endometrial cancer risk is increased by early menstruation (before age 12) and delayed onset of menopause. The more oestrogen your endometrium has been exposed to, the more periods you’ve had.
  • Never Having Given Birth: Patient are more likely to get endometrial cancer if patient have never been pregnant than if patient have at least one pregnancy.
  • Aged More: People risk of developing this cancer rises with age. Endometrial cancer most usually manifests itself after menopause.
  • Obesity: Obesity increases the risk of endometrial cancer. This could happen because excess body fat disrupts patient body’s hormonal balance.
  • Breast Cancer Hormone Treatment:  Tamoxifen, a hormone treatment medication used to treat breast cancer, can raise the risk of endometrial cancer. If patient use tamoxifen, discuss this risk with doctor. The advantages of tamoxifen typically outweigh the little risk of this cancer.
  • A Hereditary Condition Of Colon Cancer: The syndrome known as Lynch raises the risk of this cancer as well as colon and other malignancies. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is another name for Lynch syndrome (HNPCC). A gene mutation that is transmitted from parents to children is the cause of Lynch syndrome. Discuss the risk of developing the genetic syndrome with the doctor if a family member has been identified as having Lynch syndrome. Ask the doctor what cancer screening procedures should have if a person have been given a diagnosis of Lynch syndrome.


To lower risk of developing endometrial cancer:

  • Discuss With the Doctor the Risks of Hormone Replacement Therapy: Before deciding whether to use hormone replacement therapy to help manage menopause symptoms, talk to the doctor about the benefits and drawbacks. After menopause, supplementing oestrogen on patient own may increase the risk of this cancer unless you’ve had a hysterectomy. This risk can reduce by combining oestrogen and progestin. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of hormone therapy with the doctor as another danger involved.
  • Take Into Account Using Birth Control Pills: The risk may decreased by using oral contraceptives for at least a year. After the patient stops using oral contraceptives, the risk reduction is believed to continue for several years.. However, oral contraceptives may have negative side effects, so discuss the benefits and drawbacks with the doctor.
  • Keep A Healthy Weight: Maintaining a healthy weight is important since it lowers the chance of endometrial cancer. Increase the physical activity and cut back on daily calorie intake if a person need to lose weight.


Treatment for endometrial cancer typically depends on the stage of the cancer, as well as the patient’s overall health and personal preferences. The most common treatments for endometrial cancer include:

  • Surgery: The most common treatment for endometrial cancer is surgery to remove the uterus (hysterectomy) and cervix, along with the surrounding tissue and lymph nodes. In certain cases, you can also remove the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
  • Radiation therapy: This treatment uses high-energy X-rays to kill cancer cells. Used before surgery to reduce the tumor or after surgery to kill the remaining cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy: This treatment uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy is usually given after surgery for high-risk endometrial cancers, or for cancers that have spread beyond the uterus.
  • Hormone therapy: This treatment uses hormones to block the effects of estrogen on cancer cells. It may be used for early-stage endometrial cancer that is hormone-sensitive.
  • Targeted therapy: This treatment uses drugs that specifically target cancer cells, while sparing healthy cells. Targeted therapy is a newer approach to treating endometrial cancer and may be used in combination with other treatments.

Your doctor will work with you to determine the best treatment plan for your individual needs. It’s important to discuss any questions or concerns you may have about your treatment options with your healthcare provider.

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